John F. Guilmartin Jr. ñ 7 Free readIp existed between defensive fortifications and galley fleets The concluding chapters on the Battle of Lepanto 1571 offer Guilmartin s assessment of why the galley eventually declined and became obsolete in the Mediterranean The first reason deals with the limitations of organic ower and the law of diminishing returns as galleys and galeasses became larger Galleys relied on oarsmen for its MOTIVE POWER AND FOR MUCH OF THE 16TH CENTURY power and for much of the 16th century galley s speed under oar was the most important consideration in ship design For every roportionate increase in the "Size Of The Galley "of the galley reuired a disproportionate increase in the size of its ciurmi collective oarsmen to maintain the same burst speed of 7 knots and sustained speed of 3 4 knots If ships reuired oarsmen sometimes eaking at 200 220 during the 1560s then fleets also reuired far economic investment in biscuit to maintain large expeditions Unfortunately these increases in the size of galleys occurred alongside the The Late Romances price revolution that witnessed therice of grain biscuit and other victuals skyrocket Over time Mediterranean Passion for Christ, Passion for Humanity powers could no longer afford the severe economic outlay to maintain its galleys and gradually transitioned to the use of mechanical energy ie sails that both reduced the number employed sailors and the cost of sustained long term expeditions In the case of the Ottomans their utter annihilation at Lepanto saw the demise of several thousand men skilled at the composite recurve bow most of her skilled oficiales or commanders and several thousand Janissaries The oficiales and archers were irreplaceable in the short term because bothossessed skill sets that were habitually learned art forms from an early age and not easily trained specialities In sum the broadside sailing ship and gunpowder did not directly cause the disappearance of the Mediterranean galley because in Guilmartin s estimation broadsides lacked the efficient ship killing weapons until the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries Instead the galley simply grew too big for its environment the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries Instead the galley simply grew too big for its environment continue sustaining it This is an important work of naval history that is also well written and accessible to all interested readers Want to know why Lepanto was such a significant victory This is the first book I have read that advances a convincing argument Lots of technical details on galley construction finance manning battle etc I will have to get the revised edition at some My Curvy Valentine (Perfect Fit, poin. The major actions in the Mediterranean and around the Arabianeninsula Guilmartin challenges traditional thinking in a variety of diverse but interlinked areas ranging from bronze cannon casting the applicability of Mahanian ideas about sea ower to the Mediterranean world to the demise of the nomadic horse archers of Asi. .
Excellent historical work that remains the favorite non fiction book in my collection Guilmartin does an great job weaving a narrative history of the 16th Century Mediterranean into his general framework that discusses the characteristics and evolution of naval warfare During The Period Highly Recommended For Those the Always Be Ready period Highly recommended for those an interest in Early Modern or Naval history Guilmartin s Gunpowder and Galleys is one of the great works of naval history and not only that it is a great work of historyeriod With his ability to read Spanish Turkish Arabic and other languages usually beyond the ken of Western historians Guilmartin has mined records throughout the Mediterranean to bring together information ranging from technology to economics to naval tactics as he elucidates why the Mediterranean galley was a highly successful warship In Guilmartin s view the galley "WAS NOT AN ARCHAIC HOLDOVER CLUNG TO BY A "not an archaic holdover clung to by a tradition but a viable and effective amphibious Encyclopedia of International Development predator that filled a niche effectively than competing types up until the late 18th century He focussesrincipally on the 1500s and seeks to understand why the Battle of Lepanto was seen as such an important battle both at the time and in the centuries after even though it did not achieve any sort of goal conventionally understood to be the Gender Inequality in Our Changing World purpose of naval warfare in the Mahanian sense The Ottoman navy of the 16th century was the mostowerful navy of its century and fact generally unknown to Westerners This work does not cover the Ottoman navy as an institution and remains tightly focussed on the galley and its relatives but it carries significant implications to anyone who wants to understand the history of the Mediterranean and Middle East Gunpowder and Galleys is an immensely absorbing work of history culture and technology It is very readable in spite of the complexities I surprisingly enjoyed reading this book On the surface a largely technical work on 16th century Mediterranean galleys appeared rather dry Guilmartin is impressive his command of Arabic Italian Spanish Turkish and other necessary languages allows him to access a variety of sources generally untapped by naval historians of this eriod He organizes the volume into thematic and chronological chapters that alternatively explore the technical logistical and olitical aspects surrounding the 16th century galley and the notable naval battles that occurred between Jiddah in 1517 and Lepant. Gunpowder and Galleys is an expert analysis of the struggle between Christian Europe and Ottoman Turkey for control of the Mediterranean in the sixteenth century Building on a thorough analysis of changing maritime technology this study rovides an outstanding examination of the sea wars between the Ottoman Empire and its O in 1571 Several appendices introduce specialists and interested readers to the A Convent Tale physics of gunpowder early cannon design and galleys Guilmartin starts with a historicalroblem why after the introduction of gunpowder and broadside firing sailing ships in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean did the "war galley ersist throughout the 16th century while "galley ersist throughout the 16th century While naval historians have viewed the English Dutch and Portuguese as Ethics for Police Translators and Interpreters progressive naval innovators and treated Mediterraneanowers as luddites Guilmartin demonstrates that war galley fit the climate geography and socio Immigration Nation political composition of the Mediterranean far better than the broadside until at least the Battle of Lepanto When use of the galley declined in the seventeenth and eighteenth century it was due to economic and social factors like the uality of oarsmen and captains or the rising cost of biscuit and cannon and not necessarily the galley s technical limitations vis a vis the broadside sailing ship Guilmartin advances other sub arguments Most explicitly he critiues naval historians who haverojected Alfred Thayer Mahan s writings onto 16th century Mediterranean conflicts on the sea He ersuasively shows how Mahan s ideas of control of the sea and Mediterranean conflicts on the sea He ersuasively shows how Mahan s ideas of control of the sea and warfare are imprecise for describing the objectives and capabilities of galley fleets First the galley was not capable of sustaining the blockades that formed the heart of Mahan s command of the sea because their limited size and reliance on organic Incomplete Streets power reuired freuent victualing at shoreline fortresses andort cities like Barcelona Venice and Constantinople Of the three major owers that included Spain Venice and the Ottoman Empire only Venice s economic fortunes depended entirely on her trans Mediterranean trade and therefore only Venice thought about control of the sea in any Mahanian sense of the term Spain and the Ottomans used their galley fleets as tactical troop transports for amphibious assaults strategic raiders in the little wars of economic attrition and as relief forces for besieged fortresses such as those on Malta He also argues that1 The Mediterranean galley held its own against the broadside sailing ship until at least the 1580s when iron cannon became rolific2 There was no direct correlation between a cannon s barrel length and its maximum effective range 3 Naval expeditions in the Mediterranean during this century were God and the Multiverse primarily amphibious endeavors and a symbiotic relationsh. Hristian opponents and illustrates the crucial interaction between commerce and warfare in the sixteenth century Mediterranean It describes how the strategic considerations in galley warfare were substantially different from those in campaigns involving galleons or ships of the line and includes detailed descriptions of all.
John F. Guilmartin Jr.